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438                 HISTORY OF PERSIA                CHAP.
British Minister for the assault upon his courier ; in short,
he was thoroughly out of temper at having failed before
Meanwhile he had despatched a certain Husayn Khan
to England with a view to obtaining M'NeilTs recall.
The envoy was armed with a portentous document in
which the Shah protested that the sole object of his expedi-
tion had been to rescue Persian subjects from slavery, and
complained bitterly of the oppression to which he had been
subjected by the British Minister. Unfortunately for the
Persian representative. Lord Palmerston was Foreign
Minister, and at Vienna he received an intimation that he
would not be recognized as a diplomatic agent, and that
in the demand for the recall of the British Minister Her
Majesty's Government only saw an additional proof that
Sir John McNeill had faithfully and ably performed his
duty. With extreme difficulty the Persian Envoy
obtained an interview with Palmerston. That statesman
finally consented to formulate the demands of the British
Government, which were nine in number, and included
the evacuation of Ghorian and other Afghan strongholds
and a written apology for the ill-treatment of the courier.
Lastly it was stipulated that the signature of a commercial
treaty must accompany the re-establishment of diplomatic
relations. The unsuccessful envoy upon his return " ate
many sticks," in other words was severely bastinadoed.
The Rebellion of Aga Khan, 1840-1841.—The vitality of
religious sects is remarkable, and Mohamed Shah received
an unpleasant reminder of the fact in the rebellion of Aga
Khan Mahallati. Descended from the Ismailis who
played such a large part on the stage of Persia until
Hulagu crushed tie noxious sect, as detailed in Chapter
LVL, Aga Khan,1 who was a Persian nobleman and land-
owner, rose in 1840 and defeated the Governor of Yezd
on the borders of the Kerman province. After some
further successes he was driven away from Kerman and
seized the fort at Bam. Finally he fled to India, where he
assisted the British in Sind and settled down in Bombay.
In 1844-45 his brother Abul Hasan, known as the Sirdar^
1 Vide Ten Thousand Miles, etc., pp. 68-70 and p. 105.